Monday, August 9, 2021

Scouting and assessment for cereal leaf diseases, 2021

Heat and drought have been a significant challenge for Prairie cereal producers in 2021.  However, there may be localized areas that have had more moisture and potential leaf disease issues.  End-of-season scouting can be useful to a keep on top of issues from summer 2021 and to assess fungicide response or lack thereof.  This information can also be used as part of your crop planning exercises for 2022 and beyond.

Here is updated information regarding identification and scouting for leaf diseases in wheat and barley.

Disease scouting and assessment info: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iQRbz3YdrDU0T-OabMBdO3ZIgA631c7r/view?usp=sharing


Identification and scouting for Ascochyta/Mycosphaerella in field peas, 2021

Heat and drought have been a significant challenge for Prairie field pea producers.  However, there may be localized areas that have had more moisture and potential disease issues.  End-of-season scouting can be useful to a keep on top of issues from summer 2021 and to assess fungicide response or lack thereof.  This information can also be used as part of your crop planning exercises for 2022 and beyond.


Here is updated information regarding identification and scouting for Ascochyta/Mycosphaerella in field peas.


Disease info card:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/17KYzFq2xbsghD3Lik3UmdknN1xwQcIMC/view?usp=sharing


Disease scouting and assessment info:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1kYNeok4YTYRJPspzLZ2pufslTXHYqGqE/view?usp=sharing and https://drive.google.com/file/d/1HX-6fMCiBCq4ekEEA6tJilEqFBAnn7IJ/view?usp=sharing

Scouting for sclerotinia stem rot and blackleg of canola 2021

Heat and drought have been a significant challenge for Prairie canola producers.  However, there may be localized areas that have had more moisture and potential disease issues.  End-of-season scouting can be useful to a keep on top of issues from summer 2021 and to assess fungicide response or lack thereof.  This information can also be used as part of your crop planning exercises for 2022 and beyond.


Here is updated information regarding identification and scouting for both sclerotinia and blackleg of canola.


Disease identification cards

Sclerotinia: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1049a-UAekFLxRxxlDFiEIH90hSZXFPWN/view?usp=sharing

Blackleg: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1hl9iPHjcjqeJp3ZXR-ovzHlmgMc4rcB0/view?usp=sharing


Disease scouting and assessment protocols

Sclerotinia: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1hl9iPHjcjqeJp3ZXR-ovzHlmgMc4rcB0/view?usp=sharing and https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IdWH9Wgc1alQBVs146jC_48F-wNmjFbT/view?usp=sharing

Blackleg: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1uUVlS6owQ-8yXhe9Hh5J-kMFhZSXuLcj/view?usp=sharing and https://drive.google.com/file/d/1B24FneDtKtUo8FI2NpaHk6kIXbFL9VlO/view?usp=sharing


Wednesday, June 30, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (June 22-28, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: June 22-28, 2021 report.  

As of the week of June 22-28, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest – There were a limited number of wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the Prairies for June 22-28, 2021.  Also, there is generally limited stripe rust development in the PNW, and hot dry conditions in a significant portion of the Prairie region.  Thus, for the week of June 22-28, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent.  There have been some reports of stripe rust in barley from Washington State and Oregon and central to western Prairie producers and consultants may want to keep an eye out for this disease as barley fields progress.


Kansas-Nebraska corridor – Although stripe rust has developed in Kansas, and was progressing in Nebraska, winter wheat crops in these regions are moving towards later growth stages and harvest, thus active sporulation is declining or has stopped, especially in Kansas.  There were no wind trajectories from this area into the Prairie region for June 22-28, 2021, as well as generally limited Prairie rainfall.  As a consequence for the week of June 22-28, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is low.  Note the Kansas winter wheat crop continues to be harvested, while harvesting of the Nebraska winter wheat crop has just started or will likely start over the next 1-2 weeks.  Scouting for rusts from this US region is generally not urgent in the Prairie region.  Given the advancing state of winter wheat development in Nebraska and continued harvesting in Kansas, this region generally no longer represents a significant source of rust inoculum for the Prairie region.


Note, hot dry conditions in many prairie regions have impacted crop development and may impact yield potential.  In crops experiencing significant heat and drought stress, yield potentials and foliar disease risk may be limited and thus the need for fungicide application for leaf spot and rust management is likely limited. However, localized weather systems with rainfall may have occurred and as a consequence disease risk may be somewhat higher.  



Thursday, June 24, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (June 16-21, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: June 16-21, 2021 report.  

As of the week of June 16-21, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest – Even though there was a moderate number of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW, and dry conditions in a significant portion of the Prairie region, for the week of June 16-21, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent.  There have been some reports of stripe rust in barley from Washington State and Oregon and central to western Prairie producers and consultants may want to keep an eye out for this disease as barley fields progress.



Kansas/Nebraska – Although stripe rust has developed in Kansas, and was progressing in Nebraska, winter wheat crops are moving towards later growth stages, while active sporulation is declining or has stopped, especially in Kansas.  There was a low number of recent wind trajectories from this area into the Prairie region for June 16-21, 2021, as well as generally limited rainfall in Saskatchewan and Manitoba.  As a consequence for the week of June 16-21, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is low, especially as the Kansas winter wheat crop continues towards maturity and harvest, while harvesting of the Nebraska winter wheat crop will start over the next 1-3 weeksScouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent in the Prairie region. 



Friday, June 18, 2021

Announcing the Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network Quick Disease Reporter Tool (PCDMN QDRT)

Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network Quick Disease Reporter Tool (PCDMN QDRT)

Introduction

Each growing season Prairie field crop producers are faced with multiple abiotic and biotic issues.  Of the biotic issues plant diseases can have a critical impact on crop productivity and grain quality.  For some issues prior knowledge of disease history and impact can be used to modify cropping plans to minimize the impact of these issues in future growing seasons.  These plans can include strategies such as extending the rotational interval between host crops, choosing a more resistant variety, and using good agronomics to promote overall plant health.

Unfortunately for some plant disease issues, management decisions need to be made during the growing season and these typically involve the decision to apply a fungicide.  For some issues such as sclerotinia stem rot in canola and fusarium head blight in small grain cereals, the decision to spray or not to spray comes too late if symptoms in the crop are already apparent.  In contrast, for cereal leaf spots and rusts, and foliar pulse crop diseases a producer or crop consultant can follow their development to gauge risk and the need for an initial and subsequent fungicide applications. 

The growing season is extremely busy for producers and crop consultants and thus awareness of developing issues on a regional- or prairie-wide basis is critical as one can then prioritize the scouting of fields for specific issues that are just starting to develop. 

To help facilitate awareness of developing plant disease issues on a regional- and prairie-wide basis, the PCDMN and the three Prairie provincial pathologists have worked with colleagues from the AAFC Geomatics Group.  The result of this collaboration is the development and deployment of the Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network Quick Disease Reporter Tool (PCDMN QDRT).

 
Description

The PCDMN QDRT can be used to make quick general reports of diseases in common crops over the Prairie region as part of the Prairie Crop Disease Management Network.  This information can be used to identify regions where Prairie crop disease outbreaks are starting to occur and where further in-crop scouting and risk assessment are needed, especially when a fungicide application is being considered. 

Please note that if you are reporting on the observation of clubroot symptoms in Saskatchewan canola fields you are asked to also report the case to the Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture using the information outlined via this link: https://pubsaskdev.blob.core.windows.net/pubsask-prod/119190/Reporting%252Ba%252BClubroot%252BField%252Bin%252BSaskatchewan%252BWeb%252BPage.pdf.

If you have any questions or would like to learn more about the PCDMN please visit: https://prairiecropdisease.blogspot.com/.
More information on disease identification, scouting tips and disease surveillance protocols can be found at: https://prairiecropdisease.blogspot.com/p/scouting-tips-calendar.html and https://prairiecropdisease.blogspot.com/p/surveillance-protocols.html


Contact info regarding the PCDMN and Provincial Pathologists is as follows
 
PCDMN – T. Kelly Turkington: 
kelly.turkington@agr.gc.ca; 

Alberta Agriculture and Forestry – Michael Harding: Michael.Harding@gov.ab.ca;

Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture – Alireza Akhavan: alireza.akhavan@gov.sk.ca;

Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives – David Kaminski: David.Kaminski@gov.mb.ca.
 

Terms of Use

The Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network and PCDMN QDRT will not share, or otherwise make available, any identifiable information regarding the submitter or location without the expressed permission of the submitter.  The PCDMN QDRT is only to be used for reporting Canadian Prairie crop disease observations for the current growing season.  The data will be used to inform the extent and frequency of crop disease occurrence at a municipality level via the publicly available PCDMN QDRT map.  Please note that your report will not immediately appear as part of the PCDMN QDRT map.  Although efforts will be made to update the PCDMN QDRT map every few days, some delays may occur.  Initially our target is to provide weekly map updates.  The map will be shared via the PCDMN Blog and PCDMN Twitter feed as well as via provincial crop and disease updates during the summer.  Reasonable efforts will be made to verify the accuracy of reports, however the PCDMN, or its affiliates, cannot certify accuracy of every entry. As such, this tool, and the data collected, are not intended or assumed to be official or verified reports for any jurisdiction.


How do I access and use the PCDMN QDRT?

The PCDMN has prepared a tutorial outlining how to access and use the PCDMN QDRT.  Before using the PCDMN QDRT please review the tutorial document that can be found at this link: PCDMN QDRT Tutorial.  













2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (June 11-15, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: June 11-15, 2021 report.  

As of the week of June 11-15, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest – Even though there were relatively large numbers of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW and dry conditions in the central to western Prairie regions, for the week of June 11-15, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent.  There have been some reports of stripe rust in barley from Washington State and Oregon and central to western Prairie producers and consultants may want to keep an eye out for this disease as barley fields progress.




Texas-Oklahoma corridor – With the state of winter wheat crop development in the Texas to Oklahoma region, Prairie cereal rust risk reports from this region have ended for 2021.

Kansas-Nebraska corridor – Although stripe rust has developed in Kansas, and is progressing in Nebraska, winter wheat crops are moving towards later growth stages, while active sporulation is declining or has stopped, especially in Kansas.  There were a relatively low number recent wind trajectories from this area into the Prairie region for June 11-15, 2021, although some rainfall has occurred from central Saskatchewan to central Manitoba.  As a consequence for the week of June 11-15, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is generally low, especially as the Kansas winter wheat crop continues towards maturity.  Scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields, although not urgent, is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks, especially in central to eastern Prairie regions that had some moisture during early to mid June. 




Friday, June 11, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (June 4-10, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: June 4-10, 2021 report.  

As of the week of June 4-10, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest: Even though there were relatively large number of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW and dry conditions in a number of Prairie regions, for the week of June 4-10, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent.  There have been some reports of stripe rust in barley from Washington State and Oregon and central to western Prairie producers and consultants may want to keep an eye out for this disease as barley fields progress from the tillering to stem elongation stages.



Texas-Oklahoma corridor: Given the winter wheat crop in these regions is mature and harvesting is underway, a relatively low number of wind trajectories from this area, and dry conditions in large areas of the Prairies, for the week of June 4-10, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Texas-Nebraska corridor is low.  With the state of winter wheat crop development in the Texas to Oklahoma region, this will be the last Prairie cereal rust risk report from this region for 2021.



Kansas-Nebraska corridor: Although stripe rust has developed in Kansas, and is progressing in Nebraska, winter wheat crops are moving towards later growth stages, while active sporulation is declining or has stopped, especially in Kansas.  There were a relatively low number recent wind trajectories from this area into the Prairie region for June 4-10, 2021, and dry conditions in large areas of the Prairies.  As a consequence for the week of June 4-10, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is generally low, especially as the Kansas winter wheat crop continues towards maturity.  Scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields, although not urgent, is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks, especially in regions of Manitoba that had some moisture during late May and early June. 



Friday, June 4, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (May 28-June 3, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: May 28 to June 3, 2021 report.  

As of the week of May 28 to June 3, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest: Even though there were a number of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW and early stages of Prairie spring crop development, for the week of May 28 – June 3, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent.



Texas-Oklahoma corridor: Given crop development is moving towards maturity and harvest in this region, no recent wind trajectories from this area, dry conditions in the eastern Prairie region, and early stages of Prairie spring crop development, for the week of May 28 – June 3, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Texas-Nebraska corridor is low.  However, scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields in central to eastern Saskatchewan, although not urgent, is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks given previous trajectories from May 21-27, 2021, and especially  in those fields planted to stripe rust susceptible varieties. 



Kansas-Nebraska corridor:  Stripe rust is continuing to develop in Kansas, and is progressing in Nebraska, while there were limited to no recent wind trajectories from this area into the Prairie region.  For the week of May 28 – June 3, 2021, the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is generally low, especially in relation to the limited number of wind trajectories from this region over this period.  Scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields, although not urgent, is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks given previous trajectories from May 21-27, 2021, and especially in those fields planted to stripe rust susceptible varieties



Friday, May 28, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (May 21-27, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: May 21-27, 2021 report.  

As of May 27, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest: Even though there were a number of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW and early stages of Prairie spring crop development, as of May 27, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease from this US region is generally not urgent.



Texas-Oklahoma corridor: Given increasing stripe rust development in this corridor (especially Oklahoma), an increased number of recent wind trajectories from this area into the central to western Prairie region, as well as the Kindersley, SK area, and early stages of Prairie spring crop development, as of May 27, 2021 the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Texas-Nebraska corridor is low-moderate.  Scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields in central to eastern Saskatchewan as well as the Kindersley region, and Manitoba locations is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks, especially those planted to stripe rust susceptible varieties. 



Kansas-Nebraska corridor: Stripe rust is continuing to develop in Kansas, and is progressing in Nebraska, while there were limited to no recent wind trajectories from this area into the central to western Prairie region, except for Kindersley, SK.  However, there have been a number of trajectories that have passed over the central to eastern Prairie region.  As of May 27, 2021 the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is low for the central to western Prairie region and moderate (mainly for stripe rust) for the central to eastern Prairie region as well as the Kindersley area.  Scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks, especially those planted to stripe rust susceptible varieties.  






Friday, May 21, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (May 12-20, 2021)

The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: May 12-20, 2021 report.  

As of May 20, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

Pacific Northwest – Even though there were a number of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW, generally dry Prairie weather conditions during the week of May 10-16, 2021, and early stages of Prairie crop development, as of May 20, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease is generally not urgent.


Texas-Oklahoma corridor – Given limited leaf and stripe rust development in this corridor (especially Texas), a smaller number of recent wind trajectories from this area, generally dry Prairie weather conditions, and early stages of Prairie crop development, as of May 20, 2021 the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Texas-Nebraska corridor is low and scouting for these diseases is not urgent. 


Kansas-Nebraska corridor – Stripe rust is continuing to develop in Kansas, and is progressing in Nebraska, while there were limited to no recent wind trajectories from this area into the central to western Prairie region.  However, there have been a number of trajectories that have passed over the central to eastern Prairie region.  Overall Prairie weather conditions have been dry during the period of May 10-16, 2021, and generally dry in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from April 17-May 16, 2021.  Prairie spring wheat development is still early, while winter cereals continue to develop.  As of May 20, 2021 the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is low for the central to western Prairie region and moderate (mainly for stripe rust) for the central to eastern Prairie region.  Scouting for these diseases in winter wheat fields is recommended over the next 1-2 weeks, especially those planted to stripe rust susceptible varieties. 


Recent reports of stripe rust in Minnesota and Illinois suggest more northerly development of this disease and as a consequence growers in the central to eastern Prairie region should be on the look out for stripe rust over the next couple of weeks, especially in fields planted to susceptible winter wheat varieties. 

Wednesday, May 19, 2021

Mid-week mini cereal rust risk update - May 19, 2021

There has been a significant increase in the number of wind trajectories, originating over a number of states in the USA, that have crossed the prairies (Fig. 1). These air currents may introduce cereal rust spores into to the Prairie region. ECCC trajectory models indicate that air trajectories, originating over the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, Washington), have crossed Alberta, Saskatchewan and western Manitoba (Fig. 2). Trajectories originating over Texas and Oklahoma have passed over eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Fig. 3). A third group of trajectories, originating across Kansas and Nebraska have also crossed eastern Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Fig. 4). Though these US regions can be a source of cereal rust spores, the ECCC models predict air movement, not actual occurrence of cereal rust spores.  However, stripe and leaf rust continue to develop in the Oklahoma to Nebraska corridor, while development of stripe rust has generally been more limited in the Pacific Northwest.  Dry conditions in some Prairie regions and early crop development, especially in relation to spring cereals, may limit the risk.  However, scouting of winter wheat fields over the next 1-2 weeks, especially those planted to stripe and leaf rust susceptible varieties, should be considered in Prairie regions where these trajectories have occurred. 

The full PCDMN weekly cereal rust risk report will be available later this week and will include an overview of the cereal rust situation in key source regions in the USA.  

The PCDMN thanks Ross Weiss and Meghan Vankosky, AAFC Saskatoon, Jennifer Otani, AAFC Beaverlodge, and the PPMN for passing along this recent wind trajectory information. 



Figure 1. Summary of the average number (5 day running average) of reverse trajectories that have crossed the Canadian prairies (May 1-19, 2021).



Figure 2.  The green region indicates potential introduction of stripe rust uredospores from the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) to the Canadian prairies (May 18-19, 2021).



Figure 3.  The green region indicates potential introduction of stripe and leaf rust uredospores from Texas and Oklahoma to the Canadian prairies (May 18-19, 2021).



Figure 4.  The green region indicates potential introduction of stripe and leaf rust uredospores from Kansas and Nebraska to the Canadian prairies (May 18-19, 2021).


Friday, May 14, 2021

2021 Cereal Rust Risk Report (May 1-13, 2021)

Since 2019, the Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network (PCDMN) has released a series of weekly Cereal Rust Risk Reports throughout May and June.  Read the OVERVIEW describing the collaborative nature of this effort and the methods employed.  Information related to trajectory events based on forecast and diagnostic wind fields and cereal rust risk is experimental, and is offered to the public for informational purposes only.


The latest Prairie wind trajectory cereal rust risk report is available for download now at the following link: May 1-13, 2021 report.  

As of May 13, 2021 the overall Prairie cereal rust risk assessment and need for in-crop scouting is as follows:

a. Rust inoculum from the Pacific Northwest – Even though there were a number of reverse wind trajectories that passed over the PNW region and into the prairies, given limited stripe rust development in the PNW, generally dry Prairie weather conditions, and early stages of Prairie crop development, as of May 13, 2021 the risk of stripe rust appearance from the PNW is limited and scouting for this disease is generally not urgent.

b. Rust inoculum from the Texas-Oklahoma corridor – Given limited leaf and stripe rust development in this corridor, a limited number of recent wind trajectories from this area, generally dry Prairie weather conditions, and early stages of Prairie crop development, as of May 13, 2021 the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Texas-Nebraska corridor is limited and scouting for these diseases is not urgent

c. Rust inoculum from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor – Although stripe rust is continuing to develop in Kansas, it is just starting to develop in Nebraska, there were a limited number of recent wind trajectories from this area, generally dry Prairie weather conditions, and early stages of Prairie crop development, as of May 13, 2021 the risk of leaf and stripe rust appearance from the Kansas-Nebraska corridor is limited and scouting for these diseases is not urgent.  However, rust risk for the prairie region, especially for stripe rust, may increase with further rust development in these States coupled with more frequent wind trajectories from this region

 
Access ALL the full reports as downloadable PDF files by clicking the Cereal Rust Risk page.

Friday, December 11, 2020

Scouting card for bacterial leaf streak of wheat

Here is our latest edition to the Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network (PCDMN) suite of disease scouting cards.  Over the past 5-10 years there has been increasing observations of bacterial leaf streak (BLS) in wheat as well as bacterial issues in other cereal crops. Unfortunately in 2020 there were reports across the Prairie region, especially in Saskatchewan and Alberta, of bacterial issues in cereals, including wheat.  Observations reported by farmers, consultants, and pathologists suggest in some wheat fields BLS may have resulted in moderate yield losses.  

Unfortunately, management options for BLS are limited and involve two main strategies: 

1) Avoiding seed known or suspected to be infected with the BLS pathogen, as seed-borne inoculum is one of the main sources of this pathogen; 

2) Extending rotational intervals to at least two years between wheat crops to reduce the amount of infected residue, which can be another BLS source.  

It is critically important to correctly identify symptoms in the field using information outlined in the new BLS scouting card as well as other sources.  Symptoms may be confused with fungal leaf spots of wheat such as tan spot, the septoria complex and stripe rust.  If typical symptoms are observed one may be able to differentiate BLS from tan spot, the septoria complex, and stripe rust.  However, if symptoms are not distinct then a laboratory diagnosis will be needed.  Access these links for scouting cards and symptoms:

One other observation that can help to identify a potential BLS issue, is that farmers may experience a lack of symptom control when applying one or more fungicide applications during the growing season.  Although this may indicate potential issues with fungicide resistance, especially for speckled leaf blotch, it can also suggest that the observed symptoms may not be due to the fungal pathogens that cause cereal leaf spot complex or leaf/stripe rust.  Our current suite of fungicide-based seed treatments and in-crop foliar fungicides will not control BLS.

Conditions that favour development of BLS include: 1) irrigation; and 2) Severe weather events that result in torrential rain, hail, very strong winds, thundershowers and soil particle erosion.  These severe weather events may lead to plant tissue damage, which provides an avenue of entry to the BLS pathogen along with natural plant openings such as stomata. The BLS bacterial pathogen is spread by plant-to-plant contact, insects, and rain splashing or wind-driven rain.  

Given these recent BLS observations, efforts are underway in the pathology, breeding and seed testing communities to develop diagnostic tools for bacterial issues in cereals, and to provide more information related to potential varietal differences in relation to BLS susceptibility. 

Other sources of information on bacterial leaf streak include the following:

The Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network (PCDMN) would like to graciously thank the following individuals for their assistance and collaboration on the PCDMN BLS scouting card: Mike Harding, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF); Alireza Akhavan, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture; and David Kaminski, Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development.

The PCDMN would also like to graciously thank Mike Harding, AAF, and Rebecca Wiebe, CORE AG INPUTS, Carstairs, AB for photos of BLS symptoms.  

Tuesday, September 1, 2020

Ascochyta/mycosphaerella disease assessment protocols

During June and July, crop scouting for the ascochyta/mycosphaerella complex in field pea is critical for assessing risk and gauging the need for and timing of an in-crop fungicide application.  However, late season crop scouting is also important as it can be used to assess the prevalence, severity and impact of these disease issues.  Where unsprayed check strips or areas have been left in the field, late season assessments can be used to assess the impact and benefit of spraying in relation to leaf disease management and crop productivity. 

Assessment protocols and scouting information are now available at the links below for the ascochyta/mycosphaerella complex in field pea.

The main leaf diseases in field peas: 

  1. Ascochyta blight caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella pinodes;
  2. Ascochyta leaf and pod spot caused by the fungus Ascochyta pisi

Protocols and scouting information can be found at the following links:


Friday, August 14, 2020

Blackleg of canola survey protocols and scouting information

Blackleg is one of the key diseases faced by Prairie canola producers and has largely been kept in check with the use of resistant varieties and crop rotation.  However, over the past 10-20 years there have been concerns regarding observed shifts in blackleg pathogen virulence in response to the major gene resistance used in a number of varieties.  Changes in virulence patterns emphasize the critical need to stay on top of this disease; producers and crop scouts can play a critical role by scouting fields to monitor blackleg and detect any unexpected increases in disease levels on resistant varieties.  For blackleg a critical time for scouting is later in the season to assess the prevalence, severity and impact of this disease issue.  When assessing blackleg incidence and severity, it is critical to correctly identify symptoms of blackleg and differentiate these from normal or premature canola crop ripening due to a range of abiotic and biotic factors.  Recent Prairie research has shown limited responses to in-crop fungicide when resistant varieties are grown, and especially where this resistance is still highly effective. 


Protocols and scouting information can be found at the following links:

Protocols for blackleg surveying in canola

Blackleg scouting information


Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Suggested protocols for assessing the incidence and severity of sclerotinia stem rot of canola

During late June and July, crop scouting in canola is critical for assessing sclerotinia stem rot risk and gauging the need for and timing of an in-crop fungicide application.  However, late season crop scouting is also important as it can be used to assess the prevalence, severity and impact of this disease issue.  Where unsprayed check strips or areas have been left in the field, late season assessments can be used to assess the impact and benefit of spraying in relation to sclerotinia stem rot management and crop productivity.  When assessing sclerotinia stem rot incidence and severity, it is critical to correctly identify symptoms of stem rot and differentiate these from normal or premature canola crop ripening due to a range of abiotic and biotic factors. 


A detailed overview of suggested sampling protocols can be found at the following link: 

Prairie Crop Disease Monitoring Network, Sclerotinia Stem Rot Assessment Protocols, Summer 2020.

A companion document is also available that outlines additional sampling suggestions as well as typical symptoms of sclerotinia stem rot and symptoms due to other factors that are not sclerotinia stem rot.  This companion document is available at the following link:   



Thursday, August 6, 2020

Fusarium damaged kernel symptoms

In-crop scouting at the late milk to early dough stage of development in your wheat and barley may indicate potential issues with fusarium head blight.  Make sure to follow up with an assessment of the harvested grain.  Here is an @PCDMN disease info card that outlines typical fusarium damaged kernel (FDK) symptoms as well as symptoms due to other issues that may be confused with fusarium head blight damage in harvested grain.

Testing of representative samples from harvested grain by a seed testing lab can help in terms of potential grade and mycotoxin issues, while identifying possible solutions/opportunities.  

PCDMN fusarium head blight info card

The latest PCDMN fusarium head blight info card is available.  The card covers symptoms and management of fusarium head blight of wheat, caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum.




Latest PCDMN disease info card

The latest PCDMN disease info card is available.  The card covers symptoms and management of fusarium head blight of barley, caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum.